Have you ever stopped to think about how we evolved from single-celled creatures eons ago to the upright, thinking humans we are today?

Matthew Wallden thinks a lot about the subject, and all of the intended and unintended consequences, from the design of shoes to survival of the fittest and a greater understanding of epigenetics.

With degrees in osteopathic and naturopathic medicine, Matthew is one of an elite group of CHEK Practitioners who has studied Paul’s philosophies for nearly two decades.

Paul talks to Matthew, the CHEK Institute’s Global Head of Education, about the barefoot movement, what people learn from pain and how the design of scientific studies often limit what we can learn from them, in this wide-ranging Living 4D podcast rewind conversation.

You’ll also want to read Matthew’s collaboration with Paul on their paper, The ghost in the machine, published last year in the Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies (available to read and download for free.)